La eficacia de los convenios mundiales y regionales contra el polvo en Oriente Medio

  • Mehrzad Jamshidi Islamic Azad University
  • Mansour Pournouri Islamic Azad University
  • Seyed Abbas Pourhashemi Islamic Azad University
  • Daryoush Karimi Islamic Azad University
Palabras clave: Efectividad, Convenciones, Polvo, Medio Oriente.

Resumen

Los gobiernos, como los principales actores en la escena internacional para tomar medidas sobre los temas que tienen intereses globales o regionales, necesitan trabajar juntos. La cooperación de los gobiernos se realiza en forma de tratados. El tratamiento del polvo es uno de los problemas ambientales regionales que tiene un efecto global y requiere la atención de todos los países, lo que requiere un tratado regional. Desde ahora, no hemos tenido un tratado regional e internacional con respecto al polvo y, además, las diferencias básicas actuales en el Medio Oriente han hecho que tales tratados sean casi imposibles, por lo tanto, es necesario utilizar sub-mecanismos para persuadir a los gobiernos de que Es imprescindible tratar y firmar tratados con respecto al tema del polvo. La existencia de convenciones ambientales internacionales y regionales sobre el fenómeno del polvo a las que pertenecen los gobiernos locales podría tener resultados efectivos necesarios para hacer frente a polvos similares a sus compromisos (1994), conservación de la biodiversidad de Río 1992, protección de los humedales internacionales Ramsar 1971 y la Convención sobre los cambios climáticos de Nueva York 1992 podría haber uno para tratar el fenómeno de lidiar con el polvo. Y, por otro lado, los compromisos del gobierno en tales eventos causarían presión pública para implementar las disposiciones de las convenciones para lidiar con el polvo. Además, por otro lado, el uso de mecanismos, estructura organizativa y planes ejecutivos de convenciones regionales como ASEAN 2002- LRTAP 1979 y la Comisión del Sudeste Asiático de 2003 y la convención de Kuwait abordarían efectivamente el fenómeno del polvo.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Citas

Articles on Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts, The Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its Fifty-third session, Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-sixth session, Supplement, 10 (A/56/10), chp. IV.E.1.

Asean Agreement Ontransboundary Haze Pollution, (2002). http://haze.asean.org/?wpfb_dl=32

Constitution of the Islamic Republic of IRAN (1979) http://www.lexadin.nl/wly/legis/nofr/oeur/lxweira.htm. (In persian)

Convention on Biological Diversity, (1992). Rio de Janeiro, https://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd- en.pdf

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, (1979). https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/lrtap/full%20text/1979.CLRTAP.e.pdf

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, (1979). http://www.cms.int/sites/default/files/instrument/CMS-text.en_.PDF

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution, (1973). http://www.imo.org/en/ourwork/environment/lclp/documents/lc1972.pdf

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat, (1971). http://www.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/documents/library/current_convention_text_e.pdf

Declaration of the United Nations Conference on environment and development, (1992). Rio. https://www.unep.org/documents.multilingual/Default.asp?doc

Declaration of the United Nations Conference on Human Environment, (1972). https://www.unep.org/documents.multilingual/Default.asp?doc

Draft plan on the prevention of trans-boundary harm arising out of hazardous activities, YILC 2006, (A/61/10), vol. II, Part Two.

Elaboration of an International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Environmental Law Guidelines and Principles on Shared natural Resources, (1985). UNEP, http://www.unep/training/programs/instructor%20versic

Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea. http://crudeaccountability.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/convention_text_en.pdf

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, (1966), www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx

International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, (1966). www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescR.aspx

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), (1948). https://www.iucn.org/about

Kiss, A. and Shelton, D. (2007). Guide to international environmental law. Brill. Chp. 4, (a) (3): 9.

Kurukulasuriya, L., & Robinson, N. A. (Eds.). (2006). Training manual on international environmental law. UNEP/Earthprint. Chp. 5(52): 8-302.

Kuwait Regional Convention for Co-operation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution, (1978).

Mohammadi. M. (2011). Ramsar Convention from the perspective of international environmental law. http://www.yaserziaee.blogfa.com/post-283.aspx (In persian)

Moussazadeh, R. (2005). The law of Treates, Tehran: Mizan publication, 71-72. (In persian)

Poorhashemi. S. A. (2013). International Environmental Law, Tehran: Dadgostar publication, 59. (In persian)

Regional Master Plan for the Prevention and Control of Dust and Sandstorms in North East Asia http://www.unccd.int/Lists/SiteDocumentLibrary/Publications/dustsandstorms_northeastasia.pdf

Resolution (A/RES/70/1) adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015. http://www.un.org/en/ga/70/resolutions.shtml

Resolution (A/RES/70/195) adopted by the General Assembly on 22 December 2015. http://www.un.org/en/ga/70/resolutions.shtml

Resolution (A/RES/70/206) adopted by the General Assembly on 22 December 2015. http://www.un.org/en/ga/70/resolutions.shtml

Resolution (E/ESCAP/RES/72/7) adopted by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific 1 may 2016. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/E72_RES7E.pdf

Shahsavani, A. Yarahmadi, M. and Jafarzadeh, N. et al., (2009). Dust, Environment and Health. Khorasan, University of Medical Sciences Journal. 4(8): 45-46. (In persian)

Shelton, D. and Kiss, A. (2005). Judicial Handbook on Environmental Law, United Nations Environment Program, UK, 20.

Statute of the International Court of Justice (1945). www.icj-cij.org/documents/index.php?p1

The Geneva Agreements 1954 in Relation to Vietnam. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20634125?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, (1968). https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/141503.pdf

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, Paris, 14 October 1994.

United Nations Environment Assembly of the United Nations Environment Programme Second session. 2/21.Sand and dust storms (UNEP/EA.2/Res.21). Nairobi, 23–27 May 201. http://www.unep.org/unea

United Nations framework convention on climate change, (1992). https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf

United Nations General Assembly, Sustainable development (A/7/463 DR) 15 December 2016. Report of the Second Committee Draft resolution II Combating sand and dust storms. www.Conocophillips.com

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, (1948). http://www.un.org/overwiew/right.html

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969). http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/1_1_1969.pdf

Ziaei Bigdeli, M. R. (2009). Puolic International Law, Tehran: Ganjedanesh publication. (In persian)

Publicado
2019-09-30
Cómo citar
Mehrzad Jamshidi, Mansour Pournouri, Seyed Abbas Pourhashemi, & Daryoush Karimi. (2019). La eficacia de los convenios mundiales y regionales contra el polvo en Oriente Medio. Religación. Revista De Ciencias Sociales Y Humanidades, 4(19), 505-516. Recuperado a partir de http://revista.religacion.com/index.php/about/article/view/635