Socio-cultural disadvantages and cumulative deficits: which education can fight inequalities?
This article focuses on identifying the root causes of educational problems before starting “educational treatment” It starts from the premise that prevention is better than cure since it avoids further damage and is a way to prevent the problem from getting worse. Prevention understood as early action, which takes advantage of adequate planning and programming processes, keeps us away from the dangers of school failure, and guarantees us “cultural health”. Through a contrasted and comparative methodology, it was possible to analyze and interpret the sources that inform a review of the literature, with the objective of understanding how students should be helped at an early stage if they do not have the necessary conditions to face their path of acquisition. The aim is to prevent teachers from “returning” responsibilities once the damage is done, by compensating and treating the “deficit” and creating favorable conditions before starting the new segment of education. The article addresses these problems by trying to focus attention on the cumulative capacity of the “difficulty” to consolidate and grow, making subsequent compensatory interventions more problematic in their effects.
Attar, B., Guerra, N., & Tolan, P. (1994). Neighborhood disadvantages, stressful life events and adjustment in urban elementary-school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23(4), 391-400. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2304_5
Bakken, A. (2003). Minoritetsspråklig ungdom i skolen: reproduksjon av ulikhet eller sosial mobilitet? [Minority-language youth in school: reproduction of dissimilarity or mobility? in Norwegian]. Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst.
Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (2002). Cross-cultural psychology: research and applications. Cambridge University Press.
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Wiley.
Booth, T., & Ainscow, M. (1998). From them to us: an international study of inclusion in education. Routledge.
Bourdieu, P. (1979). La distinction. Critique sociale du Jugement. Minuit.
Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. (1964a). Les héritiers. Minuit.
Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. (1964b). Les étudiants et leurs études. Mouton.
Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. (1970). La reproduction. Eléments pour une théorie du système d’enseignement. Minuit.
Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (1976). Schooling in capitalist America: educational reform and the contradictions of economics life. Basic Books.
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socio-economic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 371-399. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135233
Brislin, R. W. (1981). Cross-cultural encounters: face to face interaction. Allyn and Bacon.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1995). Developmental ecology through space and time: a future percpective. In P. Moen, G. J. Elder & K. Luscher (Ed.), Examining lives in context: perspectives on the ecology of human development (pp. 619-648). American Psychological Association.
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G. J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. Future Child, 7(2), 55-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602387
Bru, E., Boyesen, M., Munthe, E., & Roland, E. (1998). Perceived social support at school and emotional and musculoskeletal complaints among Norwegian 8th grade students. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 42(4), 339-356. https://doi.org/10.1080/0031383980420402
Bryant, D., Burchinal, M., Lau, L., & Sparling, J. (1994). Family and classroom correlates of Head Start children’s development outcomes. Early Child, 9(3-4), 289-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-2006(94)90011-6
Bursuck, W. D., & Asher, S. R. (1986). The relationship between social competence and achievement in elementary school children. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 15(1), 41-49. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp1501_5
Chatterji, M. (2006). Reading achievement gaps, correlates, and moderators of early reading achievement: evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) kindergarten to first grade sample. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 489–507. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1689
Claparede, E. (1920). L'école sur mesure. Libraire Payot
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (Eds.) (1990). Peer group behavior and social status. Cambridge University Press.
Coleman, J. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Coleman, J., Campbell, E., Hobson, C., McPartland, J., et al. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. US Government Printing Office.
Collins, R. (1977). Functional and conflict theories of educational stratification. In, A. H. J. Karabel (Ed.), Power and ideology in education (pp. 118-136). Oxford University Press.
Croll, P. (2004). Families, social capital, and educational outcomes. British Journal of Educational Studies, 52(4), 390-416. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8527.2004.00275.x
Crystal S., & Shea D. (2003). Cumulative advantage, public policy, and late-life inequality. In S. Crystal, D. Shea, (Eds.), Economic outcomes in later life: public policy, health, and cumulative advantage (pp. 1-13). Springer.
Crystal, S., & Shea, D. (1990). Cumulative advantage, cumulative disadvantage, and inequality among elderly people. The Gerontologist, 30(4), 437-443. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/30.4.437
Crystal, S., Shea, D. G., & Reyes, A. M. (2017). Cumulative advantage, cumulative disadvantage, and evolving patterns of late-life inequality. Gerontologist, 57(5), 910-920. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnw056
Dean, J. (1989). Special needs in the secondary school: the whole school approach. Routledge.
Dodge, K., Pettit, G., & Bates, J. (1994). Socialization mediators of the relation between socio-economic status and child conduct problems. Child Development, 65(2), 649-665. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131407
Duncan, G. J., & Magnuson, K. (2011). The nature and impact of early achievement skills, attention skills, and behavior problems. In G. J. Duncan & R. J. Murnane (Eds.), Whither opportunity? Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances (pp. 47-89). Russell Sage Foundation.
Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., et al. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428-1446. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1248
Dyson, A. (1999). Inclusion and inclusions: theories and discourses in inclusive education. In H. Daniels & P. Garner (Eds.), Inclusive education: world yearbook of education (pp. 36-53). Kogan Page.
Epstein, J. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships: preparing educators and improving schools. Westview Press.
Freire, P. (1970). La pedagogia degli oppressi. Mondadori
Garmezy, N., & Masten, A. (1994). Chronic adversities. In, L. H. M. Rutter & E. Taylor (Eds.). Child and adolescent psychiatry (pp. 191-208). Blackwell.
Giroux, H. (1987). Introduction: literacy and the pedagogy of political empowerment. In P. Freire & D. Macedo (Eds.), Literacy: reading the word and the world (pp. 1-28). Routledge.
Goldin, C., & Katz, L. (2008). The race between education and technology. Belknap Press for Harvard University Press.
Haug, P. (1998). Integration and special education research in Norway. International Journal of Education Research, 29(2), 119-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355(98)00018-4
Haugland, B. S. M. (2003). Parental alcohol abuse: family functioning and child adjustment. University of Bergen.
Heath, S. B. (1983). Ways with words: language, life and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge University Press.
Homan, G.C. (1961). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. Hardcourt, Brace & World.
Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Polo-Tomas, M., & Taylor, A. (2007). Individual, family, and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: a cumulative stressors model. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31(3), 231-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.03.011
Kerlinger, F., & Lee, H. (2000). Foundation of behavioral research (4th ed.). Harcourt College Publishers.
Krieger, N., Williams, D., & Moss, N. (1997). Measuring social class in US public health research: methodologies and guidelines. Annual Review of Public Health, 18(1), 341-378. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.18.1.341
Kupersmidt, J., Coie, J., & Dodge, K. (1990). Peer rejection in childhood. Cambridge University Press.
Larsson, B., & Frisk, M. (1999). Social competence and emotional/behaviour problems in 6-16 year old Swedish school children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 8(1), 24-33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s007870050080
Masten, A. S., & Wright, M. O. D. (1997). Cumulative risk and protection models of child maltreatment. B. B. R. Rossman & M. S. Rosenberg (Eds.), Multiple victimization of children: conceptual, developmental, research, and treatment issues (pp. 7-30). Haworth Press.
Masten, A. S., Best, K. M., & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development & Psychopathology, 2(4), 425-444. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400005812
McLoyd, V. (1997). The impact of poverty and low socio-economic status on the socio-emotional functioning of African-American children and adolescents: mediating effects. In R. D. Taylor & M. Wang, Social and emotional adjustment and family relations in ethnic minority families (pp. 7-34). Erlbaum.
McLoyd, V. (1998). Socio-economic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53(2), 185-204. https://doi.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0003-066X.53.2.185
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2004). Mplus: the comprehensive modeling program for applied researchers. Muthén & Muthén.
Nordhagen, R., Nielsen, A., Stigum, H., & Køhler, L. (2005). Parental reported bullying among Nordic children: a population-based study. Child: Care, Health & Development, 31(6), 693-701. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16207227/
Nuzzaci, A. (2016). Scienza dell’insegnamento, formazione e competenze metodologiche degli insegnanti e dei formatori: dalla progettazione alla valutazione. [Promoting and supporting the methodological skills of teachers and trainers for the successful of the teaching and the quality of the training]. Formazione & Insegnamento. European Journal of Research on Education and Teaching, 14(3), 17-36. https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/2036
Nuzzaci, A. (2020). When “knowing how to read texts” means understanding and inferring meanings. Brolly. Journal of Social Sciences. 3(1), 7-39. https://www.journals.lapub.co.uk/index.php/brolly/article/view/1448/1199
Nuzzaci, A., & Marcozzi, I. (2019). Fattori di rischio scolastici e dropout nella percezione degli studenti: il progetto internazionale ERASMUS KA2 ACCESS [School risk factors and dropout in students’ perception: the international ERASMUS KA2 ACCESS project]. Giornale Italiano della Ricerca Educativa – Italian Journal of Educational Research, 12(23), 48-68. https://doi.org/10.7346/SIRD-022019-P48
Nuzzaci, A., & Marcozzi, I. (2019). Leggere e comprendere testi e inferire significati - Reading and understanding texts and inferring meanings. In A. Nuzzaci (Eds.), Pedagogia, didattica e ricerca educativa: approcci, problemi e strumenti / [Pedagogy, teaching and educational research: approaches, problems and tools] (pp. 375-403). Pensa MultiMedia s.r.l.
Nuzzaci, A., & Marcozzi, I. (2020). L’abbandono scolastico nella percezione degli studenti: un focus del progetto ACCESS / Early school leaving in students’ perception: focus on the ACCESS Project. In SIRD, SIPES, SIREM, SIEMeS, Le Società per la società: ricerca, scenari, emergenze (Tomo 1, pp. 127-137). Pensa MultiMedia Editore s.r.l.
Pianta, R., Hamre, B., & Stuhlman, M. (2002). Relationships between teachers and children. In, W. Reynolds & G. Miller, Handbook of psychology. Educational psychology (pp. 199-234). Wiley.
Resnick, D. P., & Resnick, L. B. (1977). The nature of literacy: an historical exploration. Harvard Educational Review, 47(3), 370-385
Ross, C., & Mirowsky, J. (2011). The interaction of personal and parental education on health. Social Science and Medicine, 72(4), 591-599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.11.028
Senechal, M. (2006). Testing the home literacy model: parent involvement in kindergarten is differentially related to grade 4 reading comprehension, fluency, spelling and reading for pleasure. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10(1), 59-87. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr1001_4
Senechal, M. (2011). A model of the concurrent and longitudinal relations between home literacy and child outcomes. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 175-188). The Guilford Press.
Senechal, M., & LeFevre, J.-A. (2002). Parental involvement in the development of children’s reading skill: a five-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 73(2), 445-460. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11949902/
Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(4), 360-407. https://www.readingrockets.org/articles/researchbytopic/4862
Stipek, J., & Ryan, R. (1997). Economically disadvantaged preschoolers: ready to learn but further to go. Developmental Psychology, 33(4), 209-223. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1991
Storch, S. A., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2001). The role of family and home in the literacy development of children from low-income backgrounds. In P. R. Britto & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), New directions for child and adolescent development. The role of family literacy environments in promoting young children's emerging literacy skills (pp. 53-71). S Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
Taylor, D., & Dorsey-Gaines, C. (1988). Growing up literate: learning from inner-city families. Heinemann.
Welsh, M., Parke, R., Widaman, K., & O’Neil, R. (2001). Linkages between children’s social and academic competence: a longitudinal analysis. Journal of School Psychology, 39(6), 463-481. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(01)00084-X
Wentzel, K. (1993). Does being good make the grade? Social behavior and academic competence in middle school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(2), 357-364. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.527
Willis, P. (1977). Learning to labour: how working-class kids get working-class jobs. Saxon House.
Xue, Y., & Meisels, S. J. (2004). Early literacy instruction and learning in kindergarten: evidence from the early childhood longitudinal study: kindergarten class of 1998-1999. American Educational Research Journal, 41(1), 191-229. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312041001191
Copyright (c) 2020 Antonella Nuzzaci
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.