Religación. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades <p>RELIGACIÓN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades (ISSN 2477-9083), it is in charge of disseminating scientific research works produced by the different working groups, as well as works by external national and international researchers, under a double blind review system. Religación is a journal that publishes ten issues a year, from March to December.&nbsp;</p> <p>It is a journal based in Quito, Ecuador, manages areas that are related to: Political Science, Education, Religion, Philosophy, Anthropology, Sociology, History and other related, with a global focus.</p> <p>It is aimed at professionals, researchers, teachers and students from the various branches of the Social Sciences and Humanities.</p> <p>We have 5 sections: <strong>Dossier, General, Photoassay, South-South and Reviews</strong></p> <p>Frequency: 2016 to 2018, the publication was quarterly. From 2019 onwards we have seen fit to publish 10 issues from March to December.</p> CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES EN CIENCIAS SOCIALES Y HUMANIDADES DESDE AMÉRICA LATINA. CICSHAL en-US Religación. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades 2477-9083 Presentation of the dossier: The State that protects us: Communities, Natural Resources and Nature Rights <p>Presentation of the dossier:</p> <p><strong>The State that protects us: Communities, Natural Resources and Nature Rights</strong></p> Eloy Alfaro Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 9 12 The threat comes from the protector itself: the action of the State in contexts of extraction and environmental conflict in Minas Gerais, Brasil <p class="p1">The present work, based on a critique of modernity and the exercise of state power, that is still based on exploitation, domination and colonization, aims to analyze the two facets of the State: at the same time it serves as an instrument of protection, it comes as a fundamental actor for the legitimation and permission of the implantation of extractive projects. The project of mining Minas-Rio, in the Serra do Espinhaço region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is quite representative of this ambiguous State figure. In this regard, I will analyze the socio-environmental transformations caused by the mining and some reflections of the logic that sustains the environmental licenses of the project.</p> Lívia Ferraz da Costa Duarte Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACIÓN 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 13 20 Geopolitics of the Amazon, die capitalism or die mother earth: Reflections on the thought of Alvaro García Linera the rights of Mother Earth <p class="p1">The aim of this article is to explain from Marxism, the problems of destruction of nature by Capitalism that are occurring in the world, such as destruction in the Amazon, by an Imperialist Geopolitics, will be based on Alvaro Garcia Linera’s thinking the rights policy of Mother Earth that faces the Plurinational State of Bolivia as a proposal to the world by President Evo Morales as an alternative to the ecological crisis that the planet is suffering, who denounced pollution and the depletion of resources and the commodification of nature. The destruction of the Amazon as a policy of interests of neoliberal governments will be based on the resistance and the proposal of the social and indigenous movements against capitalism.</p> “Willka” Álvaro Zarate Huayta Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 21 28 The Socialist Theory of Law and deep legal environmentalism. A response to the Violator / Protector State paradox <p class="p1">This article, postulates a deep legal environmentalism from the Socialist Theory of Law, with the objective of moving from legal environmentalism to deep legal environmentalism as against legal strategy (a revolutionary living right). This has resulted in an effective and counter-hegemonic instrument for the peoples, ensuring local victories, against the reproductive state of the capitalist maelstrom. The above is briefly demonstrated with the exposure of two cases.</p> César Eder Alanís de la Vega Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 29 35 Social representations of the miner in Bajo Cauca Antioqueño: subjective constructions of a disputed place <p class="p1">Mining, visible as an axis of development, involves actors and interests’ diversity, whose relationships not only impact territories in physical areas but also on subjective dimensions. This research article describes the social representations of a group of miners from Bajo Cauca Antioqueño, who analyze the emerging tensions concerning the role of the miner. The research process assumed a qualitative hermeneutical perspective, to collect data in-depth interviews were conducted. Among the findings are the delegitimization of an identity valued by miners and communities, through different policies and actions stated by the government and the influence of illegal armed groups operating in the territory.</p> Heidi Smith Pulido Varon Nicolasa Duran Palacio Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 36 42 Young Children’s Use of Manipulatives to Represent Addition Concept <p class="p1"><span class="s1">One of the first fundamental arithmetic concepts that young children learn in school is addition. This article explores how young children use manipulatives while working on tasks relating to number and addition. The study employed case study research design and involved six children (aged six years) in one preschool center. Observation of children’s work during mathematical tasks revealed children’s early understanding of the addition concept. Hence, it is important that educators value and support the early development of children’s mathematical representations to facilitate their successful use in learning and understanding mathematics concepts.</span></p> Kamariah Abu Bakar Aidah Abdul Karim Nur Aidah Rashid Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 39 45 Validity and reliability of questionnaire on preschool Teachers’ self-efficacy in the teaching of English as a second language <p>This study aims to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire on preschool teachers’ self-efficacy in the teaching of English as a second language in Malaysia. This survey-designed study used questionnaire as the instrument. The questionnaire contains 87 items under three constructs; teachers’ self-efficacy, teachers’ English language proficiency, and teaching strategies. Five experts were involved in validating the questionnaire while the reliability coefficient values were obtained from 200 preschool teachers of three districts. The results have shown that the validity of the questionnaire is high with the coefficient value of .924 based on the consensus from the experts. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient values of the reliability for self-efficacy construct was .921, English language proficiency construct was .961, and teaching strategies construct was .976. Therefore, the questionnaire has been proven to have high validity and reliability which is appropriate to measure preschool teachers’ self-efficacy, English language proficiency, as well as teaching strategies in the teaching of English as a second language.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Noorul Hidayah Azman Suziyani Mohamed Maslawati Mohamad Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 50 56 The Impact of On-The-Job Pilates Exercise on Job Satisfaction among the Female Employees of Urmia Electricity Distribution Company <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This study intends to investigate the effect of on-the-job pilates exercise on job satisfaction. The study follows a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test and post-test method with a focus on control and experimental groups. The statistical population comprises of all female employees working at Urmia Electricity Distribution Company. The experimental group received 8 weeks of exercise doing sessions (3 sessions per week, 30 minutes per session) in Electricity Distribution Company gym while the control group did not receive any treatment.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>According to the results obtained, one can conclude that on-the-job Pilates exercise as sports technology had an effect on the job satisfaction of female employees at Urmia Electricity Distribution Company. </span></p> Razieh Alizad Arablouye Bishe Mehrdad Moharramzadeh Sirous Ahmadi Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 57 62 Trial jury in Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan: comparative legal analysis <p class="p1">The article deals with the issues of normative and scientific substantiation of trial juries in Russian Federation (RF) and the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK). We analyzed the general provisions and peculiarities of the proceedings in criminal cases considered by courts with the participation of jurors. In the RF, there is a classical model of trial jury with the division of powers of professional judges and jurors on “law” and “fact” issues in the resolution of criminal cases. In the RK, there is a mixed model of trial jury with joint resolution of “law” and “fact” issues by professional judges and jurors. Mutual trends in the improvement of trial juries are outlined, such as relocation of trial juries to the district (inter-district) level of the judicial system; changes in the number of jurors; changes in the procedure for forming a jury panel; changes in the procedure for appealing verdicts.</p> Nina Dudko Mariya Neymark Evgeniy Petuchov Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 63 70 Inter-budget relations as a form of federalism <p class="p1">We analyzed the existing experience of foreign federal states (USA, Switzerland, Canada, India, and Germany) and establishes that the most interesting for the Russian Federation is the experience of building a federal budget of Germany. In our review we described that in the considered legal orders similar principles and criteria of inter-budget equalization are applied, the choice of which depends on national peculiarities, financial policy, goals pursued by the legislator and specificity of the territorial structure of the country. We noted that the Russian Federation is characterized by an asymmetrical federation, which generates imbalance in the financial provision of the constituent entities. We proposed to carry out budget equalization of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation by means of value added tax and to implement the principles of solidarity and mutual assistance of the constituent entities with horizontal equalization.</p> Nalezhda Grinchinko Irina Ignatovskaya Konstantin Cheprasov Vera Zubkova Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 71 78 Curriculum development model for Cross-Cultural Corporate Identity course in Graphic Design Programme <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This study aims to develop a curriculum development model for cross-cultural corporate identity course for Graphic Design programme in higher education institution. The cross-cultural component in this study is based on local cultural contexts from ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysian, Sabah and Sarawak. At present, the study on curriculum development which includes cross culture in the teaching of graphic design in the local contexts is lacking. Furthermore, there are insufficient studies done to evaluate students’ cross-cultural competence in the context of formal education institution. Unfortunately, even though the practice of cross-cultural design is increasingly recognised, research on the design of the corporate identity curriculum is still lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study is to present a framework for a curriculum development model for cross-cultural corporate identity course for diploma in graphic design programme which include three key components: (1) identify the key components in curriculum model development, (2) outline and develop a curriculum model and (3) evaluate its feasibility based on cross-cultural in the process of learning creative corporate identity for the education of graphic design art. The Design and Developmental Research model is applied to develop such a model. The conceptual model proposed in this study outline three main aspects - namely (1) to put forward and establish the need to create the cross-cultural model of corporate identity of graphic design arts in the local higher learning institutions which is concurrent with the demands of current academic and creative industries, (2) design and development phase and (3) evaluation and usability phase. The development of the cross-cultural curriculum model is a guide for diploma lecturers in the education of graphic design arts to facilitate the implementations of project-based teaching and learning to be more responsive by applying local and cultural elements in the product designs. Knowing local cultures is a great way to encourage future diploma graduate graphic designers to produce more product designs with quality attributes such as being authentic, and highlighting locally-produced graphics which then have the potential to flourish globally. </span></p> Nik Narimah Nik Abdullah Nurfaradilla Mohd Nasri Muhammad Helmi Norman Juritah Misman Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 79 85 A Universal Banking Model Based on Empowerment and Skills Development <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The present paper aims to propose a universal banking system focusing on the empowerment and skill development of bank employees. This study used the Delphi fuzzy method to select experts and classify and analyze their responses. Further, the DEMATEL method was used to identify and investigate the criteria correlations and map the network relationships. A robust statistical method was used to solve optimization problems based on data uncertainty. The results drawn from the model indicated that factors such as employee decision-making ability, responsibility towards executing a decision, access to decision tools, and employee self-efficacy sources influence the empowerment of employees and correct implementation of private, corporate, business, and investment banking. Further, they showed that sense of competence, motivation, participation, sense of effectiveness, and information technology influence universal banking. In addition, training and reward influence all types of universal banking.</span></p> Hamidreza Kazemi Naser Hamidi Babak Hajikarimi Kamyar Kavosh Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 86 94 Declaring on income, expenses and property by public officials: Russian practice and foreign experience <p class="p1">The article provides a comparative legal analysis of the existing experience of foreign countries (USA, Canada, Germany, South Korea, France, and Ukraine) in the field of legal regulation of provision by public officials of these countries of information on income, expenses and property, reveals common and distinctive features of this legal regulation, as well as some trends in connection with which certain conclusions were drawn. Special attention is paid to the procedure and peculiarities of the declaration campaign in the Russian Federation. The greatest difficulties have arisen in practice in connection with the extension of the obligation to report on income, expenses, property and liabilities of a property nature on the deputies of representative bodies of municipalities, including those exercising their powers on an ad hoc basis. The article analyzes the problems that have arisen in connection with this situation, and considers specific ways to overcome these problems.</p> Tatyana Volkogon Alexander Molotov Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 95 103 YouTube application in supporting students’ Arabic listening skills <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This study aims to identify the level of YouTube application usage to teach Arabic listening skills and identify respondents’ perceptions on categories of materials in YouTube application that have been selected and collected. This study was a survey study using a questionnaire instrument to measure the level of YouTube application usage to teach Arabic listening skills to students and to investigate students’ perceptions on the selected materials. The research sample was 70 students of one public university in Malaysia who were selected using random sampling method. The data collection was done using a set of questionnaires covering various items of YouTube application usage in T&amp;L Arabic language skills. The questionnaire was modified and adapted from Aziah Abdol Aziz &amp; Parilah Mohd Shah (2014) study and has gone through the validity process with high alpha Cronbach value of 0.98. The findings show that the level of YouTube application usage in teaching Arabic listening skills is at a high level. Subsequently, students are likely to be attracted to the materials that feature interesting forms, graphics, audios and visuals, appropriate timeframes and the use of standard language (fusha). </span></p> Harun Baharudin Rahil Mohd Ghazali Nordin Halias Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 104 109 Cybercrime as a global security threat <p class="p1">The aim of the study is to analyze in depth and further develop the existing theoretical and practical developments of domestic and foreign specialists in the field of investigation of crimes related to information technology. On the basis of studying and researching different points of view of specialists in this field, - to reveal and analyze different approaches of scientists to the formation of discussion questions. According to the purpose of the research, the article uses: dialectical, system-structural, formal-logic, statistical, comparative, as well as some sociological methods. The specificity and complexity in the investigation of such cases lies in the fact that this type of crime has no territorial or spatial limitations, and this, in turn, complicates its methods of rapid disclosure.</p> Anton Shirayev Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 110 114 Code in the system of alternative regulatory legal acts: priority issues <p class="p1">Modern practical jurisprudence faces many difficulties caused by inconsistencies in the current legislation. This problem concern the collision between codified and special legislation. We have formed a unified approach to solving the conflict of norms of codes and other federal laws with the help of general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, and analogy), and special, private scientific methods (formal legal, functional methods, and method of legal modeling). We have formulated a collision rule according to which the norm of a special law takes precedence over the norm of an ordinary law (including codified one). Mentioning or not mentioning the code about the admissibility of the adoption of a special law in a particular case has no legal significance. We believe that the thesis that the codified act automatically acquires increased legal force in relation to uncodified laws, which is widespread in modern science, should be recognized as incorrect.</p> Igor Vasev Konstantin Sinkin Oksana Avilova Yuriy Zelenin Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 115 120 School administrators’ willingness to receive inclusive education <p class="p1"><span class="s1">First objective is to investigate school administrators’ readiness to accept inclusive education. Besides that, this research is also to identify the relation between teaching experience duration in school with integration program and the administrators’ readiness in accepting inclusive education. This research is using quantitative design and analysed descriptively using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 22. Questionnaire has been distributed to school administrators (n=130) which consist of Principal, Headmaster, Senior Assistants, Special Education Coordinator, Head of Department and Head of Panel. There are seven schools (primary and secondary) with integration program involved. The result shows that the school administrators show a moderate readiness in accepting inclusive education. While based on the Pearson Correlation, there is no significant relation between teaching experience duration in school with integration program and the administrators’ readiness on inclusive education [r =0.57, n=130, p&gt;0.05]. Even though the administrators believe in the special pupil’s ability but they do not have the confidence in managing those special pupils in inclusive setting. The duration of experience being in the school that has integration program does not influence their readiness.</span></p> Mohd Hanafi Mohd Yasin Rabaishah Azirun Rozita Zaratang Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 121 126 Economic and legal subordination in modern trends of labor law development <p class="p1">The article discusses some trends in the development of labor law in Russia, taking into account foreign experience. We consider relations that were not previously formally regulated by law (for example, those arising from actual admission to work by an unauthorized person) or regulated by civil law from the scope of labor law. We noted that in cases where it is impossible to draw a conclusion about the sectoral nature of contractual relations and dependence of the employee, the Labor Code of the Russian Federation prescribes that they should be considered as labor relations. We also discussed the study of the evolution of the employer’s power, subordination as a specific feature of labor relations. We came to conclusion that the new expansion of labor law should be based not on legal but rather on economic interrelations between employee and employer.</p> Yulia Mihailenko Inna Prasolova Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 127 133 The Influence of Formal Authority and Delegator Teaching Style on Students’ Enjoyment In The Business Studies Subject <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The purpose of this study was to examine the teacher’s teaching style and students’ attitude towards the business studies subject. The samples were 189 upper six students who took business studies subject. This study used the survey method. Descriptive and inferential statistics used were Pearson correlations. The study found that the personal model teaching style was the preferred teaching style.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Students’ attitude towards the business studies subject was at a moderate level. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between teachers’ teaching style and students’ attitude toward business studies subject. The results of Pearson’s correlation test found that two types of teaching styles that were formal authority and delegator style had a significant relationship with the sub-constructs of attitude namely enjoyment. </span></p> Abd Aziz Abd Samad Nor Aishah Buang Asmar Yulasri Ernawati Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 134 139 Challenges of criminalization protest and corruption by looking at international documents <p class="p1"><span class="s1">With the passage of the Islamic Penal Code of 1992, the legislator took a critical step contrary to the provisions of international documents such as the Political and Civil Covenant and the Universal Declaration of Human rights and other documents criminalize behaviors that are critical of human rights, both in terms of punishment and in non-compliance with the principles and principles of criminality. As provided in Article 286 for severe on-the-ground corruption with a view to development in various fields, the death penalty has been specified. The perpetrators of these crimes and deviations from the substantive principles of security crimes, such as riots and corruption on earth, present challenges that will be addressed in this article, first explaining the importance of the right to life and the death penalty in international documents and the Iranian legal system. </span></p> Mina Torabi Mohammad Javad Jafari Masood Ghasemi Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 140 148 The ruling layer in the teachings of G. Mosca, V. Pareto and classics of Eurasianism: comparative legal analysis <p class="p1">The purpose of this paper is to compare the concepts of ruling selection and the leading layer in the works of G. Mosca, V. Pareto and the teachings of the Eurasians. In the course of their work, the authors find common and special features in these ideas and try to predict possible ways of applying the Eurasian doctrine to the Russian political reality. The authors ask about the preconditions for the formation of an original Eurasian view of the elite and the relevance of this concept in modern Russia. In the final part, the authors come to intermediate conclusions of the scientific research, which can serve as a basis for further study of the topic. The work can be useful for legal theorists, elitologists, politicians, as well as those who are interested in the Eurasian doctrine.</p> Anton Vasiliev Victoria Mukhopad Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 149 156 Exploring the city: daily visualities in Temuco, La Araucanía, Chile. <p>Photoessay:</p> <p class="p1"><em>Exploring the city: daily visualities in Temuco, La Araucanía, Chile.</em></p> Juan Erick Patricio Carrera Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 158 168 Third Party Funding in International Arbitration in Iran <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The present research focuses on arbitration, which seeks to examine the advantages and disadvantages of third party funding(TPF) and its differences with other forms of financial interference and determines who can act as an investor. The result of this research is that third party funding has disadvantages and advantages that in general, its advantages are dominated due to the difference in volume of funding, and investors in this area can be lawyers, insurance companies or any other person who is not prohibited by law and can be simulated and executed under the Article 10 of civil law.</span></p> Mahsa Molavi Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 169 177 Favorable legal environment as a condition for the realization of criminal procedural rights and the proper performance of criminal procedural duties <p class="p1">The article investigates the problem of legal support of the participants of criminal proceedings for the implementation of the rights granted to them by the legislator and the proper performance of their criminal procedural duties. Obstacles to the implementation of criminal procedure rights and obligations of normative (gaps, conflicts of legislation) and organizational (illegal actions of subjects, their inaction) nature are identified. The existing views of scientific researchers on the correlation of rights and obligations in the sphere of criminal justice as paired legal categories are studied and analyzed. We analyzed the provisions of the current criminal procedure legislation in Russia from presence/absence of legal conditions ensuring realization of rights and performance of duties by the participants of the criminal process.</p> Evgeniy Petuchov Mariya Neymark Nina Dudko Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 178 185 Developing board games to teach literary elements in ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The purpose of this research is to interrogate the effectiveness of developing board games to teach literary elements such as characters, setting and themes based on the literary text ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ by Harper Lee. The development of board games in teaching English literature aims to help student teachers to critically examine their understanding of the approaches to teaching literature. It will further develop critical appreciation and cultural awareness for students whose English is a second language. This study is based on a course ‘Teaching of literature: Reading the word and the world’ taught to 45 Year 2 TESL undergraduate student teachers at the Faculty of Education, UKM. This case study was designed with four methods of data collection namely questionnaire, interview, student teachers’ board games and reflective essays. In this study, the student teachers had formed six groups and then had chosen either a theme or a character such as ‘Tom Robinson’, ‘Atticus Finch’, ‘Boo Radley’, ‘Scout Finch’, ‘Gender stereotyping’ and ‘Racism’ to be developed further into board games. They later reflected on the whole process of developing board games, identifying its strengths, weaknesses and suggestions on how to improve it. Generally, the participants perceived that developing board games helps them to teach the literary elements such as characters, setting and themes to the pupils. </span></p> Azlina Abdul Aziz Nurul Shahira Mohd Raffi Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 186 195 Manifestation of Translation Strategies via Think-aloud Protocol <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This study was concerned with the effect of think-aloud method on the translation process. The aim of this study was to examine differences between translators in the implementation of Newmark’s strategies in translating general texts from English into Persian. Four students (three females and one male) majoring in Translation Studies participated in this study. The researcher used a mixed-method design. In the qualitative phase of the study, the data were collected through the think-aloud protocol, translation task, and cassette recorders. The results suggested that there was no significant difference between translators in the implementation of Newmark strategies with regard to translation tasks. During the quantitative phase of the study, the researcher examined the difference between the translators in implementing translation strategies while translating general texts from English into Persian. In this phase of the study, the data were analyzed using SPSS 19 performing Chi-square. The results of this phase proposed that there was statistically no significant difference between the four translators with regard to most of the translation strategies.</span></p> Samaneh Rahnama Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 196 205 Parliamentarianism: concept, signs, and problems of development in Russia <p class="p1">The article analyzes various ideas about the concept and features of parliamentarism. On the basis of the generalization of the legal literature, the following set of features of parliamentarism is denoted: 1) rule of law; 2) separation of powers; 3) participation of the parliament in bodies of executive, judicial and other branches of power; 4) accountability of the executive power to the parliament; 5) multiparty nature, the right to political opposition and ensuring the connection of the population with the state mechanism; 6) special status of the deputy with a free mandate and responsibility before the law; 7) independence of the parliament; 8) special status of the deputy with a free mandate and responsibility before the law. The concept of parliamentarism proposed to counteract state bureaucratization. We connected the idea of parliamentarism with the possibility of mitigating authoritarian tendencies in Russian political system.</p> Lyudmila Konovalova Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 208 221 The Role of painting in prevention of crime <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Art has recently been considered as one of the therapeutic methods in medical science. Since one of the most important measures in dealing with criminals is therapeutic and habilitation measures, taking into account my personal interests in art particularly paintings and regarding the effect of artwork creation on human personality. A criminal by creating a work of art, in another word by releasing his personality can retell all hidden secrets or evacuate his inner emotions. Art has the effect of spiritual freshening, ethic and skill education, spare time making for criminals. Therefore, the subject of painting’s role in the prevention of crimes is considered to be of high importance which should be examined separately in order to highlight the importance of art and particularly paintings.</span></p> Mitra Dahesh Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 222 225 The relationship between efficiency and level of satisfaction on Continuing Professional Development among teachers <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The aim of this study was to identify the level of efficiency among teachers in Bachang Zone and their satisfaction towards online Continuing Professional Development (CPD). The survey has been conducted among 181 respondents in Bachang Zone, Malacca in order to identify the relation between teachers' level of knowledge on ICT<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>and their satisfaction based on gender and ages. The study showed that teacher who has more knowledge in ICT where have a high satisfaction. However, the comparative analysis found that teachers’ efficiency on ICT was varied by gender, not by age. Meanwhile, the level of CPD satisfaction were significant by gender and age. Therefore, this study suggested that various educational organizations should provide teachers with assistance in ICT and improve the training website system to be more user-friendly and the similar conducted in rural areas also mostly welcomed.</span></p> Mohd Jasmy Abd Rahman Low Weng Sheng Nur Kamariah Ensimau Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 226 233 Noisy behavior of residents of an apartment building as a matter of neighborly law (the case of relationship between dog owners and neighbors) <p class="p1">The aim of this study is to examine in detail such a segment of neighborhood law as the silence related relations of neighbors in an apartment building. Neighborhood law, despite its long existence in the legal systems of foreign countries, remains unspecific in the regulation of relations between apartment owners, while in Russia neighborhood law has not received due attention from the federal legislator. We believe that competition between public and private law on this issue should be resolved in favor of private law. Civil law in the current state contains a great potential for the regulation of neighborhood relations and protection of neighborhood rights. The possibilities of civil law in this area should be expanded in the course of the forthcoming reform of property legislation. It is necessary to continue the development of neighborhood law in Russia.</p> Dmitry Pyatkov Margarita Pyatkova Ulvi Amilogly Aliyev Polina Savitskaya Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 234 249 Using social media in writing among Primary School pupils <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The advancement of technology has brought transformation in education. Utilisation of social media to promote learning are increasing exponentially at secondary and tertiary education levels. However, the researcher was still doubting using social media on current primary school pupils. Thus, this study aimed to explore the use of social media among primary school pupils and how they perceive towards the use of English in writing on social media. Questionnaires were distributed among 37 primary 4 pupils in a Chinese vernacular school in a Southern state in Malaysia. The findings showed that YouTube is the most prominent tool used among the pupils and they have good competency in using the social media which they always use. Pupils use social media for academically and non-academically purposes. However, slightly more than half of the pupils do not have positive perceptions towards using English in writing on social media. Social media could be exploited in learning writing activities to increase the awareness of pupils towards a better writing performance.</span></p> Aderlin Chung Kim Yuk Melor Md Yunus Ashairi Suliman Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 250 258 Discourse Theory: Language, Politics, and Society <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This article tries to review definitions of discourse and origin and purposes of discourse analysis. It points out that discourse theory integrates language, power, ideology, politics, and society. Plus, it provides a dynamic domain to analyze social and political phenomena to prove that under the light of discourse theory it is possible to recognize the influences of language on the political and social life of nations.</span></p> Hussein Aftabi Arash Moshfegi Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 259 267 Electronic voting in modern Russia: discussions, technologies, am experiments <p class="p1">We discussed the increasing interest in the use of technical means for voting in elections and referendums with a gradual transition to electronic voting. Our article deals with the peculiarities of the experiment on the organization and conduct of remote electronic voting in the elections of deputies of the Moscow City Duma of the seventh convocation, scheduled for September 8, 2019. In addition, the article analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of electronic voting, offers recommendations on eliminating some risks associated with the use of this type of electronic voting. The received results of the experiment will allow to define directions of the further work on perfection of legal regulation of introduction in selective process of modern digital technologies. In case of positive results, practical and technological solutions can be developed, which will ensure further development of the remote electronic voting system in Russia.</p> Irina Akimova Shapiev Siyabshakh Olga Blinova Vera Mankovskaya Olga Kitnovskaia Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 268 273 The effect of fun and interactive games as a strategy in teaching coordinates to enhance students’ performance in Mathematics <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This research is aimed to help students develop their mathematical concept, as well as emphasizing the appropriate use of information technology among Year Three students. The current mathematics curriculum in Year Three primary school in Malaysia was introduced in 2018. This quantitative study used a quasi-experimental method. Thus, this study examines the differences in performance between a controlled group and experimental group from a school in Malaysia. Paired samples test results have proven that the experimental group performed better than the controlled group. It was also found that fun and interactive games can increase students’ understanding and interest towards mathematics. Interactive games can contribute least time to master some mathematical concepts in a fun way. Therefore, the fun and interactive game is a superior instrument that can be utilized by primary students in learning mathematics in order to encourage learning and innovation skills in the 21st century.</span></p> Nurjailam Hamzah Siti Mistima Maat Zanaton H. Iksan Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 274 278 Legal protection of cross-border use of intellectual property <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The paper analyzes the issues of legal regulation of cross-border use of intellectual property on the example of the Eurasian Economic Union. Among the key problems of cross-border use of intellectual property within the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) is the need to create a unified system of registration of trademarks and service marks and elimination of double registration of trademarks, establishment of common approaches to the problem of admissibility of “parallel imports” within the EEU, and the creation of an effective patent system. The authors conclude that the development of legal regulation of the use of intellectual property in cross-border relations will follow the path of adoption of normative acts within the framework of regional unions of states, taking into account the specifics of their economic and social development, as well as the way of improvement of national legislation, taking into account the position of states on this issue. </span></p> Irina Kiryushina Andrey Serebryakov Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 279 285 Vocational Education Systems in Germany and Turkey: Comparative Analysis* <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Globalization challenges, which affected the geopolitical and economic processes, labor market transformation and education internationalization have shaped the urgency of the problem. The purpose of the article is to compare vocational education systems in Germany and Turkey (using the dual system as an example) in order to identify the possibilities of transferring ideas and practices of the dual education system. A comparative analysis is the leading research method, which uses the context, transfer and forecasting methodology. Description and comparison of the context main elements allow determining the possibilities and conditions of the dual education system transfer. The findings provide an opportunity to identify transfer risks and predict the consequences of borrowing. The research results significance consists in context, transfer, and forecasting substantiating as the comparative analysis elements and applying this methodology to the processes of professional education. </span></p> Anastasia Y. Pleshakova Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 286 291 The Diversity of Adversities with Psychometric Properties Assessment across Youth Categories through Rasch Model <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This study will be focusing on several aspects such as the pattern of items distributions of adversities across youth categories, the pattern in reliability and separation index of the items and persons in measuring adversities across youth categories, the pattern in category probability curves across youth categories, and the pattern in item unidimensionality across youth categories. The research was provided empirical evidences on psychometric assessment of newly developed adversity measurement using modern psychometric theory. This information is valuable to expanding research on youth specifically in differentiating responses based on demographic profiles.</span></p> Mohd Effendi Ewan Mohd Matore Tengku Elmi Azlina Tengku Muda Copyright (c) 2019 RELIGACION 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 4 22 292 298