Urban middle strata in post-reform Russia: status and social position in the assessments of German historians of the 1970 and 1990

  • Andrey G. Dorozhkin Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University - Russia
  • Tatiana V. Emets Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University - Russia
  • Svetlana S. Velikanova Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University - Russia
  • Vladimir A. Chernobrovkin Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University - Russia
  • Olga L. Potrikeeva Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University - Russia
  • Oksana P. Chernykh Moscow University of Finance and Law - Russia
Keywords: Russia, urban middle strata, German historiography, philistinism, urbanization, modernization.


Of the goal of this study is to investigate the position of the urban middle strata in the Russian Empire of the post-reform era. At the same time, the attempts were made to determine the composition of this population category, to correlate its status with traditional philistinism, to reveal the process of capitalist transformation of the latter in the second half of the nineteenth century. Recognizing the transformation of philistinism in the structures of the emerging bourgeois society since the 1860-ies with the influence of government policy, German researchers, especially M. Hildermayer, who paid the most attention to the problem, also point to the complexity, the unevenness of this process, as well as to a certain inconsistency of the imperial power in its assistance. At the same time K. Gestwa’s research testifies a certain stability of traditional middle layers that are not always imbued with a specifically bourgeois worldview.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Dorozhkin A.G. (2007). Urbanization of pre-revolutionary Russia in the interpretation of the German-speaking historiography of the late twentieth century. Scientific bulletins of the Belgorod State University. Series «History Political science, economics». No. 1 (32). pp. 93-99. (in Russian).

Dorozhkin, А.G., Potemkina, M.N., Popov, M.V., Ivanov, A.G. Velikanova, S.S., Chernykh, O.P. (2018). Russians Revolutions and the problem of the country socio-economic backwardness: the view of German historians of twentieth ctntury, The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication. TOJDAC, Special Edition, p. 101-106 (in English).

Gestwa K. (1999). Proto-Industrialisierung in Russland. Wirtschaft, Herrschaft und Kultur in Ivanovo und Pavlovo, 1741-1932. Goettingen. 680 S. (in German).

Haumann H. (1980). Kapitalismus im zaristischen Staat. Organisationsformen, Machtverhaltnisse und Leistungsbilanz im Industrialisierungsprozess. Konigstein: Hain, 324 S. (in German).

Hildermeier (1986). M. Buergertum und Stadt in Russland. 1760 – 1870. Rechtliche Lage und soziale Struktur. Koeln-Wien: Boehlau, 689 S. (in German).

Hildermeier M. (1979). Standordnung und sozialer Wandel: Russland in die Fruhphase der Industrialisierung. Geschichte und Gesellschaft, H. 3, S. 313-335 (in German).

Hildermeier M. (1985). Was war das mescanstwo? Zur rechtlichen und sozialenVerfassung des unteren staedtischen Standes in Russland // Forschungen zur osteuropaeischen Geschichte. Bd. 36. Berlin, S. 15-53 (in German).

Hildermeier, M. (1977). Sozialer Wandel im stadtischen Russland in der zweiten Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Anmerkungen zur neueren Literatur, Jahrbucher fur Geschichte Osteuropas, Bd. 25, H. 4, S. 526-566 (in German).

Ivanov L.M. (1971).On the stratum-class structure of the cities of capitalist Russia, Problems of the Socio-Economic History of Russia. pp. 312-340 (in Russian).

Kanishchev V.V. (1998). Urban middle strata during the formation of Soviet society foundations. October 1917 - 1920 (based on the materials from the center of Russia). Author’s abstract from the diss. of the Doctor of hist. sciences. 36 p. (in Russian).

Karagodin A.V. (2000). The study of the rural population of Russia social mobility during the modernization period (1861-1914) in modern Western Russian studies: approaches and perspectives, Information bulletin of the scientific seminar «Industrialization in Russia». 2000, No. 10. pp. 31-46 (in Russian).

Merle S. (1998). Economic system and living standard in pre-revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union. Expectations and reality, Domestic history, No. 1, pp. 97-117 (in Russian).

Mironov B.N. (1999). Social history of Russia during the period of the empire (XVIIIth - early XXth century.). Genesis of personality, democratic family, civil society and the rule of law: In 2 vols. Spb.: Publishing house by Dm.Bulavin, V. 2 - 566 p. (in Russian).

Potkina I.V. (1994). Industrial development of pre-revolutionary Russia. Concepts, problems, discussions in American and English historiography. Moscow: IRI, 1994. 231 p. (in Russian).

Ruffmann K.H. (1966). Der soziale Strukturwandel in Russland bis zur Oktoberrevolution Sowjetgesellschaft im Wandel. Russlands Weg zur Industriegesellschaft. Stuttgart, S. 9-26 (in German).

Sklyarov L.E. (1993). Iran of 60-80-ies: traditionalism against modernity. Moscow: Nauka, 255 p. (in Russian).

Strekalova N.V. (2003). Social stratification and social mobility of the urban middle strata in 1907-1917: based on the materials of Tambov. Author’s abstract from the diss of the Cand. of east. sciences. Tambov, (Electronic resource).Access mode: http://www.dissercat.com/content/sotsialnaya-stratifikatsiya-i-sotsialnaya-mobilnost-gorodskikh-srednikh-sloev-v-1907-1917-gg (in Russian).

How to Cite
Dorozhkin, A. G., Emets, T. V., Velikanova, S. S., Chernobrovkin, V. A., Potrikeeva, O. L., & Chernykh, O. P. (2019). Urban middle strata in post-reform Russia: status and social position in the assessments of German historians of the 1970 and 1990. Religación. Revista De Ciencias Sociales Y Humanidades, 4(19), 100-105. Retrieved from http://revista.religacion.com/index.php/religacion/article/view/440