Declaring on income, expenses and property by public officials: Russian practice and foreign experience
The article provides a comparative legal analysis of the existing experience of foreign countries (USA, Canada, Germany, South Korea, France, and Ukraine) in the field of legal regulation of provision by public officials of these countries of information on income, expenses and property, reveals common and distinctive features of this legal regulation, as well as some trends in connection with which certain conclusions were drawn. Special attention is paid to the procedure and peculiarities of the declaration campaign in the Russian Federation. The greatest difficulties have arisen in practice in connection with the extension of the obligation to report on income, expenses, property and liabilities of a property nature on the deputies of representative bodies of municipalities, including those exercising their powers on an ad hoc basis. The article analyzes the problems that have arisen in connection with this situation, and considers specific ways to overcome these problems.
Anonymous. (2010). How other countries control the income of officials. Available from; http://krizis-kopilka.ru/archives/10203/
Anonymous. (2012). Is it good to have a house abroad? Available from: https://rg.ru/2012/08/15/za-granizei.html/
Anonymous. (2015). Regional deputies do not declare their income, enjoying impunity. Available from: http://www.rosbalt.ru/federal/2015/05/07/1396013.html/
Anonymous. (2016a). In Velskiy Raion, four deputies resigned early. Available from: https://region29.ru/2016/09/19/57dfc5ac2817cafa 7400834d.html/
Anonymous. (2016b). Purse or power. Available from: https://rg.ru/2016/11/30/reg-urfo/zaurale-deputaty-otkazalis-deklarirovat-dohody.html/
Anonymous. (2016c). For concealment of income they want to deprive three deputies of the Berdsk City Council. Available from: http://www.kurer-sreda.ru/2016/05/11/231174-za-sokrytie-doxodov-xotyat-lishit-polnomochij-trex-deputatov-gorsoveta-berdska/
Anonymous. (2016d). The court took the crust from the deputies of the Altai municipality. Available from: https://www.bankfax.ru/news/104992/
Anonymous. (2017a). Just refused. Available from: http://www.ksonline.ru/228496/prosto-otkazalis/
Anonymous. (2017b). The head of Yaroslavl’s Duma was deprived of his authority for an undeclared garage. Available from: https://lenta.ru/news/2017/05/03/duma/
Anonymous. (2017c). Due to loss of trust. Available from: http://kuzpress.ru/politics/19-01-2017/50390.html/
Anonymous. (2017d). Local MPs hide revenues. Available from: https://www.oblgazeta.ru/politics/28667/
Balisacan, R. (2018). Mandatory Asset Declarations Reduce Corruption? And If So, How? Available from: https://globalanticorruptionblog.com/2018/01/08/do-mandatory-asset-declarations-reduce-corruption-and-if-so-how/
Bobkov, S.P. (2013). Publication of information on the income of heads of municipal entities. Legality, 11, 13–14.
Bourdillon, Y. (2017). Transparence des élus a minima en Occident. Available from: https://www.lesechos.fr/verif.php?url=/monde/transparence-des-elus-a-minima-en-occident-0202690414086.htm&url=/international/transparence-des-elus-a-minima-en-occident-0202690414086.htm/
Burdescu, R., Reid, G. J., Gilman, S., Trapnell, S. (2009). Income and Asset Declarations: Tools and Trade-offs. Stolen Asset Recovery. (StAR) Initiative. 1 Available from: https://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/Publications/StAR/StAR/StAR_Publication_-_Income_and_Asset_Declarations.pdf/
Channov, S.E. (2009). Provision of information on income. Russian Justice. 4, 5-6.
Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. (1995). N 31, Art. 2990.
Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. (2003). N 40, Art. 3822.
Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. (2006). N 26, Art. 2780
Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. (2008). N 52(1), Art. 6228.
Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. (2009). N 21, Art. 2542.
Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. (2012). N 50(4), Art. 6953.
Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. (2015). N 45, Art. 6204.
Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. (2017). N 15(1), Art. 2139.
Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. (2019). N 30, Art. 4153.
Corruption Perceptions Index. (2018). Summary. World Map. Highlights. The CPI in Detail. Available from: https://www.transparency.org/cpi2018/
Draft Federal Law. (2018). No. 1118708-6. On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation. SPS “ConsultantPlus”.
Filatova, A.O. (2016). Presentation of Information on Income and Property of Deputies as Another Restriction of the Freedom of Deputy Mandate of the Representative Body of Local Self-Government. State Duma and local self-government, 10, 18-22.
Gae, O.P. (2008). Korea’s policies and instruments to manage conflicts of interest, ADB/OECD Anti-corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific, Manila. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/5/9/39368038.pdf/
Global Corruption Report. (2006). Transparency International. Kotalik J., Rodriguez, D. (Ed.). Available from: https://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/publication/global_corruption_report_2006_corruption_and_health/
Greenberg, T. S., Samuel, L. M., Grant, W., Gray, L. (2009). Stolen Asset Recovery. A Good Practices Guide for Non-Conviction Based Asset Forfeiture. Washington.
Jenkins, M. (2015). Topic guide on income and asset disclosure. Available from: https://www.transparency.org/files/content/corruptionqas/Topic_Guide_ Income_and_Asset_Disclosure.pdf/
Khorunzhiy, S.N., Beketova, S.M. (2013). Restrictions and duties of deputies of legislative (representative) bodies of state power of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the field of combating corruption. Constitutional and municipal law, 6, 38–40.
Law of the Republic of Latvia on Personal Income Tax. (1993). Available from: https://www.baltikon.lv/uploaded_files/z_ pnn-2013ru.pdf/
Law of Ukraine. (2011). No. 1506/1. On the Fundamentals of Preventing and Combating Corruption (2011). Available from http://www.president.gov.ua/ru/documents/9615.html/
Levakin, I.V. (2012). On declaring data on expenditures by public officials. Legal problems of combating corruption: Proceedings of the international scientific-practical conference. Moscow: Jurisprudence.
Messick, R. (2009). Income and Assets Declarations: Issues to Consider in Developing a Disclosure Regime. U4 ISSUE 2009:6. Available from: https://www.u4.no/publications/income-and-assets-declarations-issues-to-consider-in-developing-a-disclosure-regime.pdf/
Municipal deputies ask the State Duma to explain how to punish those who failed to submit income declarations. Available from: http://kvedomosti.com/448862-municipalnye-deputaty-prosyat-u-gosdumy-razyasneniy-kak-nakazyvat-ne-sdavshih-deklaracii-o-dohodah.html/
Ninenko, S.I. (2012). Declarations on income, assets and liabilities of a property nature of public officials. Application in Russia and the World. Book 1. E. G. Yasin (Ed.). Moscow. Publishing House of the National Research University Higher School of Economics.
Peters, G. (1997). Policy Transfers Between Governments: The Case of Administrative Reforms. West European Politics, 20, 71–88.
Peters, G. (2008). The Napoleonik Tradition. International Journal of Publik Sektor Management, 21(2), 118-132.
Savran, O., Gaika, I., Cardona, F., Bertok, J., Kalnins, V., Stefan, L., Khavanska, T. (2011). OECD (2011), Asset Declarations for Public Officials: A Tool to Prevent Corruption. OECD Publishing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264095281-en/
Sofronova, E.V. (2012). Performance by civil and municipal servants of the duty to provide information on income. State power and local self-government, 10, 29-31.
Values and Ethics Code for the Public Service. (2003). Available from: http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pubs_pol/hrpubs/tb_851/vec-cve-eng.pdf/