Changes in educational adaptation during the covid-19 pandemic in Paraguay, 2020-2021

Keywords: Adaptation; Educational actors; TIC; Pandemic; Paraguay.


During the years 2020 and 2021, global education was significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The sudden change in educational modality caused the different actors to adapt at breakneck speed and with the often-limited resources available to them. The present study aims to show and analyze the educational changes that have occurred during the last two years in Paraguay through the statements collected from three actors directly involved in the teaching-learning process: teachers, high school and university students, and parents of school-age children from different parts of the country. The data collection was carried out in three different phases: Mar-May 2020, Nov-Dec 2020 and Nov-Dec 2021. The results show significant changes in terms of access to technological tools such as computers and internet and demonstrate high proportions of actors who used WhatsApp and educational platforms as the main channels of communication and sending homework. In addition, they highlight the reading of materials and worksheets as those activities mostly proposed during the two years. The results also revealed significant difficulties related to internet connectivity, lack of understanding of tasks, motivational aspects, and lack of time for adequate dedication to the activities proposed. Nevertheless, several stakeholders highlighted that the educational modality implemented was of interest to them due to certain advantages that could be taken advantage of and improved in a normal educational system.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Valentina Canese, Universidad Nacional de Asunción - Paraguay

Ph.D. en Currículum e Instrucción - Arizona State university – Master en Educación con énfasis en Lengua y Políticas Lingüísticas - San Diego State University - Licenciada en Lengua Inglesa – Universidad Nacional de Asunción. Directora – Instituto Superior de Lenguas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción.

Juan Ignacio Mereles, Universidad Nacional de Asunción

MSc. en Elaboración, Gestión y Evaluación de Proyectos de Investigación Científica, Universidad Nacional de Asunción. Licenciado en Ciencias Mención Matemática Estadística, Universidad Nacional de Asunción. Coordinador de Postgrado e Investigación en la Universidad Nacional de Asunción.

Jessica Amarilla, Universidad Nacional de Asunción

Magister en Educación, University of Western Australia. Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa, Universidad Nacional de Asunción. Docente en la Universidad Nacional de Asunción.


Alipio, M. (2020) Education during COVID-19 era: Are learners in a less-economically developed country ready for e-learning? ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.

Bonilla-Guachamín, J. A. (2020). Las dos caras de la educación en el COVID-19. CienciAmérica, 9(2), 89-98.

Bozkurt, A., y Sharma, R. (2020). Emergency remote teaching in a time of global crisis due to CoronaVirus pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 1-6.

Cabrera, L. (2020). Efectos del coronavirus en el sistema de enseñanza: aumenta la desigualdad de oportunidades educativas en España. Revista de Sociología de la Educación-RASE, 13(2), Especial COVID-19, 114-139.

Canese, V., Mereles, J., & Amarilla, J. (2022). Entre desafíos y oportunidades: Actores educativos ante la pandemia del COVID-19 en Paraguay. LATAM Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, 3(1), 123-139.

Consejo Nacional de Educación Superior [CONES]. (2020). Educación Superior del Paraguay en Tiempos de COVID-19.

Cóndor-Herrera, O. (2020). Educar en tiempos de COVID. CienciAmérica, 9(2), 31-37.

Di Pietro, G., Biagi, F., Costa, P., Karpiński, Z., & Mazza, J. (2020). The likely impact of COVID-19 on education: Reflections based on the existing literature and recent international datasets. Publications Office of the European Union.

Dovrat, L. (2022). Perceptions of emergency remote teaching tools used during Covid-19 online teaching by an Israeli English for Academic Purpose (Eap) department. Studies in Technology Enhanced Learning.

ECLAC-UNESCO. (2020, August). Education in the time of COVID-19..

Expósito, C. D., & Marsollier, R. G. (2020). Virtualidad y educación en tiempos de COVID-19. Un estudio empírico en Argentina. Educación y Humanismo, 22(39).

Gómez-Arteta, I., & Escobar-Mamani, F. (2021). Educación virtual en tiempos de pandemia: incremento de la desigualdad social en el Perú. Revista Chakiñan de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, (15), 152-165.

Gómez-Hurtado, I., García-Rodríguez, M., González Falcón, I., & Coronel Llamas, J. (2020). Adaptation of active methodologies in university education in pandemic time. International Journal of Educationfor Social Justice, 9(3e). 415-433.

Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. Educause Review.

Korzycka, M., Bójko, M., Radiukiewicz, K., Dzielska, A., Nałęcz, H., Kleszczewska, D., Małkowska-Szkutnik, A., & Fijałkowska, A. (2021). Demographic analysis of difficulties related to remote education in Poland from the perspective of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine.

Kruszewska, A., Nazaruk, S., & Szewczyk, K. (2022). Polish Teachers of Early Education in the Face of Distance Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic – the Difficulties Experienced and Suggestions for the Future. Education, (50)3, 3-13.

Ministerio de Educación y Ciencias [MEC]. (2020). Plan de Educación en Tiempos de Pandemia.

Mereles, J. I., Canese, V., & Amarilla, J. (2020). Dificultades experimentadas por estudiantes secundarios y universitarios en Paraguay en tiempos de COVID19. Ciencia Latina Revista Científica Multidisciplinar, 4(2), 1687–1708.

Moreno, J. L., & Lluch, L. (2020). Educación y Covid-19: colaboración de las familias y tareas escolares. Revista Internacional De Educación Para La Justicia Social, 9(3).

Molina-Pérez, J., & Pulido-Montes, C. (2021). Covid-19 y digitalización “improvisada” en educación secundaria: Tensiones emocionales e identidad profesional cuestionada. Revista Internacional de Educación Para La Justicia Social, 10(1), 181–196.

Perdomo, B. (2022). Docentes y barreras enfrentadas en la enseñanza remota de emergencia por COVID-19: Revisión integrativa. Foro Educacional, 38, 7–37.

Pozo-Sánchez, S., López-Belmonte, J., Fuentes-Cabrera, A., & Moreno-Guerrero, A. J. (2020). Incidencia de la retro-innovación en educación superior. Radio y televisión como herramientas complementarias en el uso del modelo de enseñanza conocido como aprendizaje invertido. Formación universitaria, 13(3), 139-146.

Portillo, S. A., Castellanos, L. I., Reynoso, Ó. U., & Gavottto, O. I. (2020). Enseñanza remota de emergencia ante la pandemia Covid-19 en Educación Media Superior y Educación Superior. Propósitos y Representaciones, 8(3spe), e589.

Shagiakhmetova, M. N., Bystritskaya, E. V., Demir, S., Stepanov, R. A., Grishnova, E. E., & Kryukova, N. I. (2022). Primary teachers difficulties related to compulsory distance education during covid-19. Contemporary Educational Technology, 14(2), ep357.

Sintema, E. (2020). Effect of COVID-19 on the Performance of Grade 12 Students: Implications for STEM Education. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics. Science and Technology Education, 16(7), 1-6.

Tadesse, S., & Muluye, W. (2020). The impact of covid-19 pandemic on education system in developing countries: A review. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 08(10), 159–170.

Tiruneh, D. (2020). COVID-19 School Closures May Further Widen the Inequality Gaps between the Advantaged and the Disadvantaged in Ethiopia. UKFIET The Education and Development Form.

Trujillo, F., Fernández, M., Segura, A., y Jiménez, M. (2020). Escenarios de Evaluación en el contexto de la pandemia por la COVID-19: La opinión del profesorado. SantillanaLab.

Vallejos, G. A., & Guevara, C. A. (2021). Educación en tiempos de pandemia: una revisión bibliográfica. Conrado, 17(80), 166-171.

Wozney, L., Venkatesh, V., & Abrami, P. (2006). Implementing computer technologies: Teachers’ perceptions and practices. Journal of Technology and teacher education, 14(1), 173-207.

How to Cite
Canese, V., Mereles, J. I., & Amarilla, J. (2022). Changes in educational adaptation during the covid-19 pandemic in Paraguay, 2020-2021. Religación. Revista De Ciencias Sociales Y Humanidades, 7(34), e210989.