Expanding the biological limits of degeneration of temporomandibular structures. Literature review

  • Jenny Fabiola Anchundia Reinoso Universidad Católica de Cuenca | Cuenca | Ecuador
  • Christian David Zapata Hildalgo Universidad Católica de Cuenca | Cuenca | Ecuador
  • Celia María Pulgarín Fernández Universidad Católica de Cuenca | Cuenca | Ecuador
Keywords: Temporomandibular joint; degeneration; biological limit; alterations; dysfunction.


The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is an essential structure that allows the jaw to open and close, and its degeneration can cause pain and dysfunction. This literature review begins by highlighting the importance of understanding all the underlying biological mechanisms of TMJ degeneration to develop better treatment approaches. This review aims to gather all the information on the molecular mechanisms, hormonal and genetic factors involved in signaling pathways and interactions that are potentially related to jaw disorders. The literature was selected by searching electronic databases. It was determined that in the face of an inflammatory and degenerative process of the TMJ, the presence of several proteins, molecules, hormones, and increased gene expression is present in large volume, however, future research with larger samples is needed to improve understanding in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in this field.


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Author Biographies

Jenny Fabiola Anchundia Reinoso, Universidad Católica de Cuenca | Cuenca | Ecuador

Odontólogo General de la Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Especialista en Ortodoncia de la Universidad Católica de Cuenca.

Christian David Zapata Hildalgo, Universidad Católica de Cuenca | Cuenca | Ecuador

Odontólogo, especialista en Ortodoncia, docente en la Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Universidad Regional de los Andes, Universidad San Gregorio de Portoviejo. Práctica exclusiva en Ortodoncia, Socio Activo de la Sociedad de Ortodoncia del Azuay, Asociación Latinoamericana de Ortodoncia, Word Federation Orthodontic y de la Academia internacional de Odontología Integral

Celia María Pulgarín Fernández, Universidad Católica de Cuenca | Cuenca | Ecuador

Médico, Especialista en Medicina Crítica y Terapia Intensiva, Master en Administración de Empresas. Médico tratante de la Unidad de Pacientes Críticos Adultos del Hospital de Especialidades José Carrasco Arteaga. Cuenca, Ecuador. Miembro de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Terapia Intensiva núcleo Azuay.


Bartosz Dalewski, A.K., Białkowska, K., Jakubowska, A., & Sobolewska, E. (2020). Association of Estrogen Receptor 1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor α Polymorphisms with Temporomandibular Joint Anterior Disc Displacement without Reduction. Disease Markers, 9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6351817

Cafferata, E., Monasterio, G., Castillo, F., Carvajal, P., Flores, G., Díaz, W., Fuentes, A., & Vernal, R. (2021). Overexpression of MMPs, cytokines, and RANKL/OPG in temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis and their association with joint pain, mouth opening, and bone degeneration: A preliminary report. Oral Dissease, 27, 970 -980 https://doi.org/10.1111/odi.13623

Dalewski, B., Kaczmarek, K., Jakubowska, A., Szczuchniak, K., Pałka, Ł., & Sobolewska, E. (2021). COL12A1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms rs240736 and rs970547 Are Not Associated with Temporomandibular Joint Disc Displacement without Reduction. Genes, 12(5), 690. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050690

Duarte Doetzer, A., Hirochi Herai, R., Rabelo Buzalaf, M., & Trevilatto, P.C. (2021). Proteomic Expression Profile in Human Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction. Diagnostics, 11(4), 601. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11040601

Duarte Doetzer, A., Almeida, L., Alcántara, F., de Noronha, L., Olandoski, M., & Trevilatto, P.C. (2020). Association of estrogen receptor alpha 1 and TMJ dysfunction: A pilot study. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, 131(4), e89- e94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2020.11.010

Ege, B., Erdogmus, Z., Bozgeyik, E., Koparal, M., Kurt, M.Y., & Gulsun, B. (2021). Asporin levels in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders. J Oral Rehabil, 48, 1109–1117. https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.13234

Fan, B., Liu, X., Chen, X., Xu, W., Zhao, H., Yang, C., & Zhang, S. (2020). Periostin Mediates Condylar Resorption via the NF-κB-ADAMTS5 Pathway. Inflammation, 43(2), 455–465. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-019-01129-4

Feng, S.Y., Lei, J., Chen, H.M., Wang, Y.X., Yap, A.J., & Fu, K.Y. (2020). Increased chemokine RANTES in synovial fluid and its role in early-stage degenerative temporomandibular joint disease. J Oral Rehabil, 47, 1150–1160. https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.13041

Guarda Nardini, L., Meneghini, M., Guido, M., Baciorri, F., & Manfredini, D. (2021). Histopathology of the temporomandibular joint disc: Findings in 30 samples from joints with degenerative disease. J Oral Rehabil, 48, 1025–1034. https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.13218

Ita, M.E., Ghimire, P., Granquist, E.J., & Winkelstein, B.A. (2022). MMPs in tissues retrieved during surgery from patients with TMJ disorders relate to pain more than to radiological damage score. J Orthop Res, 40, 338-347. https://doi.org/10.1002/jor.25048

Jia, J., Sun, J., Liao, W., Qin, L., Su, K., He, Y., Zhang, J., Yang, R., Zhang, Z., & Sun, Y. (2020). Knockdown of long non‑coding RNA AK094629 attenuates the interleukin‑1β induced expression of interleukin‑6 in synovium‑derived mesenchymal stem cells from the temporomandibular joint. Molecular Medicine Reports, 22(2), 1195-1204. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11193

Jia, M., Lv, Y., Xu, Y., & Gong, Z. (2021). comparative analysis of NLRP3-related inflammatory mediators in synovial fluid in temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis and internal derangement. BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 22(229). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04092-0

Kang, J.H. (2021). Transcriptomes in peripheral blood of young females with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. Scientific Reports, 11(8872). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88275-8

Loreto C., Filetti V., Almeida L., La Rosa, G., Leonardi, R., Grippaudo, C., & Lo Giudice, A. (2020). MMP-7 and MMP-9 are overexpressed in the synovial tissue from severe temporomandibular joint dysfunction. European Journal of Histochemistry, 64(2). https://www.ejh.it/index.php/ejh/article/view/3113

Pohranychna, K., Ohonovskyi, R., Pasternak, Y., & Skochylo, O. (2020). The role of predictors of cartilage damage progression predictors to temporo-mandibular joint when the mandibular condyle is fractured. International Journal of Medical Dentistry, 24(3), 450-455. https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/role-predictors-cartilage-damage-progression/docview/2544289066/se-2

Ramos Montiel, R.R. (2022). Theoretical epistemic foundation of the maxillofacial cranio-cervico diagnosis Fundamento teórico epistémico del diagnóstico cráneo-cérvico maxilofacial. Rev Mex Ortodon, 7(4), 180-182. https://doi.org/10.22201/fo.23959215p.2019.7.4.80814

Shao, B., Xu, Y., Jia, M., & Gong, Z. (2023). Association of HMGB1 levels in synovial fluid with the severity of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 24(183). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-023-06208-0

Yosaphat, B.R., & Rahajoe, P.S. (2020). Effects of estradiol hormone in menopausal women on anterior disc displacement of temporomandibular joint. Les Ulis: EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20202802002

Yuan, M., Xie, Q., Shen, P., & Yang, C. (2021). ¿Los desequilibrios de las hormonas sexuales contribuyen a la resorción condilar idiopática? International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, 5(9), 1244-1248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2021.01.017

How to Cite
Anchundia Reinoso, J. F., Zapata Hildalgo, C. D., & Pulgarín Fernández, C. M. (2023). Expanding the biological limits of degeneration of temporomandibular structures. Literature review. Religación, 9(39), e2401126. https://doi.org/10.46652/rgn.v9i39.1126