Determinants of employee retention in the private service sector in Malaysia

  • Rosalind Joyce Universiti Teknologi Malaysia - MALAYSIA
  • Fauziah Sh. Ahmad Universiti Teknologi Malaysia - MALAYSIA
Keywords: Employee retention, Work-life balance, Job satisfaction.


This paper looks at the retention of employees particularly among the private service sector employees in Malaysia. The results show that all 4 elements which are flexible work arrangements, compensation management, social networks and employer branding affects job satisfaction which in turn influences employee retention. This paper contributes to business practices by offering the right approaches to implement work-life balance and retention activities in the private service sector in Malaysia. Further research needs to be done on the public sector employees.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Ahn, N., & García, J. R. (2004). Job satisfaction in Europe.

Bertelli, A. (2007). Bureaucratic turnover and democratic governance: Evidence from the US internal revenue service. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 17(2), 235-258.

Bond, J. T., Thompson, C., Galinsky, E., & Prottas, D. (2002). Highlights of the national study of the changing workforce: Executive summary. Virginia: Families and Work Institute.

Buchheit, S., Dalton, D. W., Harp, N. L., & Hollingsworth, C. W. (2015). A contemporary analysis of accounting professionals’ work-life balance. Accounting Horizons, 30(1), 41-62.

Cavana, R. Y., Delahaye, B. L., & Sekaran, U. (2001). Applied Business Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Chaminade, B. (2007). A retention checklist: How do you rate? African Journal of Business Management, 4(10), 49-54.

DeCenzo, D. A., Robbins, S. P., & Verhulst, S. L. (2016). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Ejiofor, P. N. O., & Mbachu, A. U. (2001). Imperatives of human resource practices in the new millennium. Journal of the Management Sciences, 5(1), 121-126.

Feldman, D. C., & Arnold, H. J. (1983). Managing Individual and Group Behavior in Organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Frank, F. D., Finnegan, R. P., & Taylor, C. R. (2004). The race for talent: Retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century. Human Resource Planning, 27(3), 12-25.

Fung, N. S., Ahmad, A., & Omar, Z. (2014). Role of work-family enrichment in improving job satisfaction. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 11(1), 96-104.

Global Workforce Study. (2014).

Hay Group Report. (2013). Global employee engagement and enablement trends.

Hayat, M., Khalid, G. K., & Malik, A. (2010). Job satisfaction among national highway authority employees. International Review of Business Research Papers, 6(1), 319-30.

Idris, A. (2014). Flexible working as an employee retention strategy in developing countries: Malaysian bank managers speak. Journal of Management Research, 14(2), 71-86.

Kossivi, B., Xu, M., & Kalgora, B. (2016). Study on determining factors of employee retention. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4(05), 261-268.

Kreitner, R., Kinicki, A., & Buelens, M. (2002). Organizational Behaviour. London: McGraw-Hill.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.

Loan‐Clarke, J., Arnold, J., Coombs, C., Hartley, R., & Bosley, S. (2010). Retention, turnover and return–A longitudinal study of allied health professionals in Britain. Human Resource Management Journal, 20(4), 391-406.

Mossholder, K. W., Settoon, R. P., & Henagan, S. C. (2005). A relational perspective on turnover: Examining structural, attitudinal, and behavioral predictors. Academy of Management Journal, 48(4), 607-618.

Possenriede, D. S., & Plantenga, J. (2014). Temporal and locational flexibility of work, working-time fit, and job satisfaction.

Rain, J. S., Lane, I. M., & Steiner, D. D. (1991). A current look at the job satisfaction/life satisfaction relationship: Review and future considerations. Human Relations, 44(3), 287-307.

Ramlall, S. (2003). Organizational application managing employee retention as a strategy for increasing organizational competitiveness. Applied HRM Research, 8(2), 63-72.

Roelen, C. A., Koopmans, P. C., & Groothoff, J. W. (2008). Which work factors determine job satisfaction? Work, 30(4), 433-439.

Saini, G. K., Rai, P., & Chaudhary, M. K. (2014). What do best employer surveys reveal about employer branding and intention to apply? Journal of Brand Management, 21(2), 95-111

Sila, U. (2010). Working hours, childcare support, wage inequality and windfall gains. PhD thesis, England: London School of Economics.

So, A. P. K. (2010). The relationship between stress, work hours and depressive symptoms among migrant factory workers in China. Phd thesis, Virginia: Liberty University.

Trevor, C. O., Gerhart, B., & Boudreau, J. W. (1997). Voluntary turnover and job performance: Curvilinearity and the moderating influences of salary growth and promotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(1), 44-61.

Virtanen, M., Stansfeld, S. A., Fuhrer, R., Ferrie, J. E., & Kivimäki, M. (2012). Overtime work as a predictor of major depressive episode: A 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study. Plos One, 7(1), pp. 1-5.

Watson, T. (2014). The 2014 global workforce study: Driving engagement through a consumer-like experience.‐Types/Survey‐Research‐ Results/2014/08/the‐2014‐global‐workforce‐study.

Zingheim, P. K., Schuster, J. R., & Dertien, M. G. (2009). Compensation, reward and retention practices in fast-growth companies. World at Work Journal, 18(2), 22-39.

How to Cite
Joyce, R., & Ahmad, F. S. (2019). Determinants of employee retention in the private service sector in Malaysia. Religación. Revista De Ciencias Sociales Y Humanidades, 4(21), 17-22. Retrieved from