Gamification: Theoretical Reflections from a Business Approach

Keywords: Business gamification; Game; Reward; Strategy; Employee


Gamification by using game mechanics allows people to achieve a purpose other than entertainment. Thus, the present study aims to carry out a theoretical reflection from a business perspective on gamification, its importance, and its contributions in this context. To do this, methodologically, as it was descriptive, it used four stages for the interpretive analysis of bibliographic documents and relied on theoretical methods such as analysis-synthesis, historical-logical, and deductive-inductive. Within the results, four sections are presented that involve the contributions of the study, its elements, contexts and applications, and its tools. Finally, it is concluded that gamification in the business environment becomes an advantage for managers since it allows motivation among staff in training processes and the generation of an optimal work environment; as well as direct interaction with customers to strengthen their perception of the brand. 


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Dayana Sofia Barros-Pozo, Universidad Técnica de Ambato - Ecuador


 Egresada de la Universidad Técnica de Ambato. Conocimientos referentes a administración de empresas y manejo de equipos de trabajo. Cursos sobre motivación del personal y administración. 

Ricardo Patricio Medina-Chicaiza, Universidad Técnica de Ambato - Ecuador

Docente de la Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas de la Universidad Técnica de Ambato. Docente de la Escuela de Ingeniería de Sistemas de la Universidad Católica. Magister en Tecnologías de la Información. Máster en Dirección de Ingeniería de Software y Máster en Marketing Digital y Comercio Electrónico. 


Allal-Chérif, O., & Bidan, M. (2016). Collaborative open training with serious games: Relations, culture, knowledge, innovation, and desire. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 2(1), 31-38.

Basante, V., & Moreno, L. (2020). Plataforma digital Ludeteca Jurídica: Una apuesta por la gamificación en Derecho. REJIE Nueva Época, Revista Jurídica de Investigación e Innovación Educativa, 21, 25-44.

Bista, S., Nepal, S., & Paris, C. (2014). Gamification for online communities: A case study for delivering government services. International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems, 23(2), 1-25.

Bittner, J., & Schipper, J. (2014). Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 31(5), 391-400.

Borrás, O. (2015). Fundamentos de la gamificación. Gabinete de Tele-Educación de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

Cardador, M., Northcraft, G., & Whicker, J. (2017). A theory of work gamification: Something old, something new, something borrowed, something cool? Human Resource Management Review, 27, 353-365.

Catalán, S. (2018). Engaging users through gamification. The role ofemotions, motivation, and flow. (Tesis de Doctorado) Universidad de Zaragoza. España

De Marcos, L., Domínguez, A., Saenz de Navarreter, J., & Pagés, C. (2014). An empirical study comparing gamification and social networking on e-learning. Computers & Education, 75, 82-91.

Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining “gamification”. MindTrek’11, 28-30.

Dignan, A. (2011). Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success. Free.

Domínguez, A., Saenz de Navarrete, J., de Marcos, L., Fernández, L., Pagés, C., & Martínez, J. (2013). Gamifying learning experiences: Practical implications and outcomes. Computers and Education, 63(1), 380-392.

Doyle, D., & Brown, F. W. (2000). Using a business simulation toteach applied skills –the benefits and the challenges of using student teams from multiple countries. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24, 330-336.

Eickoff, C., Harris, C., Vries, A., & Srinivasan, P. (2012). Quality through flow and immersion: Gamifying crowsourced relevance assessments. IProceedings of the 35th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in In Information Retrieval, 871-880.

Gallego, C., & De Pablos, C. (2013). La gamificación y el enriquecimiento de las prácticas de innovación en la empresa: Un análisis deexperiencias. Intangible Capital, 9(3), 800-822.

Gatner. (2011). Maverick Research: Motivation, momentum and meaning: How Gamificationcan inspire engagement. Gartner Research.

Gutiérrez, J., & Olvera, M. (2017). Gamificación para la adquisición de competencias en la educación superior: el caso de la traducción e interpretación. McGraw Hill.

Hamari, J., Shernoff, D., Rowe, E., Coller, B., Asbell-Clarke, J., & Edwards, T. (2016). Challenging games help students learn: An empirical study on engagement, flow and immersion in game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 170-179.

Hernandez, L., Muñoz, M., Mejia, J., Peña, A., Rangel, N., & Torres, C. (2017). Application of gamification elements in software engineering teamwork. 12th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 1-7.

Hunicke, R., LeBlanc, M., & Zubek, R. (2004). MDA: A formal approach to game design and game research. Game Design and Tuning Workshop at the Game Developers Conference. Obtenido de

Hunter, D., & Werbach, K. (2014). Gamificación. Revoluciona tu negocio con las técnicas de los juegos. Pearson.

Hunter, R. (2011). The Gamification Handbook: Everything You Need to Know About Gamification. Emereo Pty Limited.

Huotari, K., & Hamari, J. (2017). A definition for gamification: anchoring gamification in the service marketing literature. Electronic Markets, 27, 21-31.

Ivanovna, I. (2013). Four Pillars of Gamification. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 13, 149-152.

Jones, B., Madden, G., & Wengreen, H. (2014). The FIT game: Preliminary evaluation of a gamification approach to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in school. Preventive Medicine, 68, 76-79.

Liang, S., Schuckertb, M., Lawb, R., & Chen, C. (2017). Be a “Superhost”: The importance of badge systems for peer-to-peer rental accommodations. Tourism Management, 60, 454-465.

Lister, C., West, J., Cannon, B., Sax, T., & Brodegard, D. (2014). Just a Fad? Gamification in health and fitness apps. JMIR Serious Games, 2(2), 1-12.

Loayza, A., & Vite, A. (2017). Los dispositivos móviles y su influencia en la Educación Superior. Pro Sciences: Revista De Producción, Ciencias E Investigación, 1(1), 3–5.

Lozada, C., & Betancourt, S. (2015). La gamificación en la educación superior: una revisión sistemática. Revista Ingenierías Universidad de Medellín, 98-124.

Lucassen, G., & Jansen, S. (2014). Gamification in consumer marketing –future or fallacy? Procedia –Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, 194-202.

Marache, C., & Brangier, E. (2013). Perception of Gamification: Between Graphical Design and Persuasive Design. Design, User Experience, and Usability Health, Learning, Playing, Cultural, and Cross-Cultural User Experience. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 558-567.

Md Yunus, M., Hashim, H., Likan Edwin, J., Yen Yee, H., Hashan Arif, N. I., & Nur Hamimi, A. K. (2019). The ‘Branches Map’ method and ESL students’ Motivation in essay writing. Religación. Revista De Ciencias Sociales Y Humanidades, 4(17), 46-51.

Medina, P., & Martínez, A. (2020). Tecnologías en la inteligencia artificial para el Marketing: una revisión de la literatura. Pro Sciences: Revista De Producción, Ciencias E Investigación, 4(30), 36–47.

Mora Aristega, J. E. (2017). Evaluación de desempeño y el desarrollo de actitudes y competencias del personal. Pro Sciences: Revista De Producción, Ciencias E Investigación, 1(1), 10–14.

Morschheuser, B., Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2016). Gamification in crowdsourcing: A review. In Proceedings of the 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Mzohd Daud, N. A., Ahmad, N., Yusuf, H. M., & Ibharim, L. F. (2019). Needs analysis study on the development of multicultural counseling gamification modules for counselors in training. Revista De Ciencias Sociales Y Humanidades, 4(15), 115-12.

Oliveira, P., & Von Hippel, E. (2011). Users as Service Innovators: The Case of BankingServices. Research Policy, 40(6), 806–18.

Oprescu, F., Jones, C., & Katsikitis, M. (2014). I PLAY AT WORK – ten principles for transforming work processes through gamification. Frontiers in Psychology, 5 (14), 1-5.

Pando, J., Periañez, I., & Charterina, J. (2016). Business simulation games with and without supervision: An analysis based on the TAM model. Journal of Business Research, 69, 1731-1736.

Pascuas, Y., Vargas, E., & Muñoz, J. (2017). Experiencias motivacionales gamificadas: una revisión sistemática de literatura. Innovación Educativa, 17(75), 63-80.

Payne, A., Storbacka, K., & Frow, P. (2008). Managing the co-creation of value. Journal ofthe Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 83-96.

Rahimi, N. M., Faisal, N. A., Kamarudin, M. Y., & Tukimin, R. (2019). The Effectiveness of Differentiated Learning Method on Motivation and Achievement of Foreign Language Learning. Religación. Revista De Ciencias Sociales Y Humanidades, 4(19), 161-164.

Reeves, B., & Leighton, J. (2009). Total Engagement: Using Games and Virtual Worlds to Change the Way People Work and Businesses Compete. Harvard Business Press.

Reeves, B., & Read, J. L. (2009). Total engagement: using games and virtual worlds to change the way people work and businesses compete. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Ritcher, G., Raban, D., & Rafaeli, S. (2015). Studying gamification: The effect of rewards and incentives on motivation. Springer.

Rodríguez, F., & Santiago, R. (2015). Gamificación: cómo motivar a tu alumnado y mejorar el clima en el aula. Digital Text. Grupo Océano.

Sailer, M., Hense, J., Mandl, H., & Klevers, M. (2017). Psychological perspectives on motivation through gamification. Interaction Desing and Architecture (s) Journal, 19, 28-37.

Sailer, M., Hense, J., Mayr, S., & Mandl, H. (2017). How gamification motivates: An experimental study of the effects of specific game design elements on psychological need satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 69(371).

Sailer, M., Hense, J., Mayr, S., & Mandl, H. (2017). How gamification motivates: An experimental study of the effects of specific game design elements on psychological need satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 371-380.

Seaborn, K., & Fels, D. (2015). Gamification in theory and action: A survey. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 74, 14-31.

Sigala, M. (2015). The application and impact of gamification funware on trip planning and experiences: the case of TripAdvisor’s funware. Electronic Markets, 25(3), 189-209.

Statista. (2020). Value of the education gamification market worldwide in 2015 and 2020.

Susi, T., Johanesson, M., & Backlund, P. (2007). Serious Games – An overview. Elearning, 73(10).

Terlutter, R., & Capella, M. (2013). The gamification of advertising: Analysis and research directions of in-game advertising, advergames, and advertising in social network games. Journal of Advertising, 42(2-3), 95-112.

Van Eck, R. (2006). Digital game-based learning: It’s not just the digital natives who are restless. Educ. Rev., 41(2), 16–30.

Vargas, Z., Rodríguez, A., & Sánchez, C. (2020). Digital games (Gamification) in Learning and Training: An Approach to Adaptation and Integration in the Clasroom. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal, 171-188.

Vos, L., & Brennan, R. (2010). Marketing simulation games: Student and lecturer perspectives. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 28(7), 882-897.

Werbach, K., & Hunter, D. (2012). For the Win: How game thinking can revolutionalize your business. Digital Press.

Winkler, T., & Buckner, K. (2006). Receptiveness of gamers to embedded brand messages in advergames: Attitudes towards product placement. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7(1), 24-32.

Xu, F., Buhalis, D., & Weber, J. (2017). Serious games and the gamification of tourism. Tourism Management, 60, 244-256.

Xu, F., Webber, J., & Buhalis, D. (2014). Information and communication technologies in tourism. Springer, Proceedings of the ENTER 2021 eTourism Conference, January 19–22, 2021, 525–537.

Yang, Y., Asaad, Y., & Dwivedi, Y. (2017). Examining the impact of gamification on intention of engagement and brand attitude in the marketing context. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 459-469.

Zichermann, G., & Linder, J. (2010). Game-Based Marketing: Inspire Customer Loyalty Through Rewards, Challenges, and Contests. Wiley.

How to Cite
Barros-Pozo, D. S., & Medina-Chicaiza, R. P. (2021). Gamification: Theoretical Reflections from a Business Approach. Religación, 6(27), 197-210.